KAFR HASSAN DAWOOD
The wide variety of artefacts found at KHD is consistent with the variety of artefacts found at other Late Predynastic to Early Dynastic sites elsewhere in ancient Egypt. However, there are not as many prestige goods as found at Minshat Abu Omar (MAO). Also, the preservation rate at KHD does not seem to be as good as MAO, for organic materials have only rarely been discovered at KHD. The location of the site, in the East Delta, gives an insight into the site hierarchy that seems to be present within the territory of the emerging nation state. Many of the artefacts are of a similar design to those found at Upper Egyptian sites such as Abydos, and Nagada, and a full examination and comparison of the artefacts from KHD with other contemporary sites is needed. The wide variety of materials used also seems to indicate that some of the raw materials were probably imported to the site or that the actual objects themselves were traded.
The artefacts at KHD are divided into three sub-groups stone vessels, pottery and small finds, which are those finds that are not classified under pottery or stone vessels. Stone vessels constitute 12% of the total artefactual assemblage, with a largest amount of stone vessels being recovered from graves 913 and 970. The whole pottery vessels constitute 78% and small finds of 10% of the recovered artefactual material. The small finds found at KHD include agate, faience, carnelian, bone and shell beads; large re-touched pressure-flaked flint knives; siltstone make-up palettes; copper adzes, knives, mirrors, needles, fish hooks and chisels; and two gold cups. The materials used vary through metal, stone, semi-precious stones, bone, shell and faience. Although the large graves such as 913, 970 and 1008 had the greatest variety of objects in them, some of the most prestigious objects found were placed in small graves, such as the copper needles in 1027 or gold cups in 73, and may in some cases be the only artefact found in it (apart from a crude potsherd).
The Kafr Hassan Dawood system of registering finds consists of a four-digit number preceded by the site code KHD. All pottery vessels are be numbered from KHD0001-0999, potsherds from KHD1000-1999, stone vessels and sherds from KHD2000-2999, small finds from KHD3000-3999 and potmarks from KHD4000-KHD4999.
Figure 92. Storage or cooking vessel KHD0072 from Grave 970 with its accompanying potstand, lid and scoop.
Figure 93. Pottery vessel KHD 0146 from Grave 1024 with a ka sign potmark KHD4049.
Figure 94. Storage vessel from Grave 823 with the bori fish potmark KHD4000 prominent in the centre.
Figure 95. Two storage jars from Grave 970.
Figure 96. Scolloped storage jar KHD0070 from Grave 1008; the serekh of King Sekhen (KHD4010), which was found on this jar, is not in view.
Figure 97. Dishes found in Grave 970.
Figure 98. Potmark KHD4005 showing a crocodile or lizard from Grave 970.
Figure 99. Potmark KHD4021 on pottery vessel KHD0058 from Grave 1011.
Figure 100 Porphyry bowl in situ in Grave 968.
Figure 101. Siltstone bowl KHD2006 from Grave 970.
Figure 102. Egyptian alabaster dish KHD2077 from Grave 913.
Figure 103. Tall cylindrical beaker of Egyptian alabaster KHD2012 from Grave 970.
Figure 104. Shell necklace KHD3015 from Grave 1003.
Figure 105. Beads KHD3074 from Grave 1024
Figure 106. Re-touched pressure-flake flint knife KHD3001 from Grave 970.
Figure 107. Siltstone make-up palette KHD3068 from Grave 1037.
Figure 108. The broken copper chisel KHD3076 from Grave 1041.
Figure 109. Flint blades KHD3062-5 from Grave 1027.