KAFR HASSAN DAWOOD
THE 1996 SURVEY SEASON
The second UCL-SCA co-operative season was a survey of the site conducted in April, led by Prof. Paul Sinclair and Dr. Mohammed Abdel-Rahman under the directorship of Prof. Fekri A. Hassan. The main objectives of this season were:
This season the site grid and datum were established using a total station. Using these newly established co-ordinates and datum a topographic map and digital terrain model were created for the whole area of cultural occupation. Geophysical prospecting was conducted using magnetometry, electric resistivity and ground penetrating radar to identify subsurface geoarchaeological features. Both the magnetometry and resistivity survey’s produced good results and identified geological variations and archaeological remains. However, good results were not produced by the ground penetrating radar because the high ground conductivity caused penetrating problems. The results of this geophysical prospecting were tested in the 1996 Summer excavation season and proved very accurate in their identification of archaeological features.
- The creation of a topographic map of the site.
- The establishment of a site datum.
- The laying of a site grid with a total station.
- A drill-core and test-pit survey of the site to establish the microstratigraphy.
- A geophysical sub-surface survey of the Western Cemetery.
The microstratigraphic drill coring programme was conducted using a BORRO motorised augur with a 50 mm screw augur which provides a distributed but continuous core in 1 metre sections down to a depth of 7 metres. The cores were extracted using a hand lifter capable of exerting 12 tons of pull. This survey complemented the original hand auguring (to a depth of 3 m) and test pit survey conducted Mohammed Abdel-Rahman in 1995. The results of the analysis were to identify in younger to older order five sedimentary units overlain by aeolian sand: 5) Alluvial-Colluvial Unit, 4) Upper Nile Mud Unit, 3) Upper Sand Unit, 2) Lower Nile Mud Unit, 1) Basal Sand Unit. The final interpretation of this analysis was undertaken by M. Abdel-Rahman Hamden and F. A. Hassan and is available in their 2002 publication (see bibliography).
Figure 11. Prof Paul Sinclair (left) with Dr. Mohammed Abdel-Rahmen Hamden and Dr. Mohammed Ibrahim Hamdi Hafez operating the motorised drill corer.