KAFR HASSAN DAWOOD
THE 1995 FIELD SEASON
In the first UCL-SCA co-operative season from 29th July to 25th August, there were two main objectives: firstly to examine the human remains in the extensive Western cemetery, which covers at least 16,100 m2 of the 382,200 m2 concession, and also to assess the enigmatic area in the East of the site that contains 'a cow and child burial'. The main objectives of this season were:
Seven 10 metre squares were excavated, 3 in the West and 4 in the East of the site. The western cemetery yielded 35 features, 27 of which were graves 19 of which contained burials with human remains. There were 19 Terminal Predynastic - Early Dynastic Period, 11 of which contained human remains and 8 Late Period to Ptolemaic, all of which contained human remains. The majority of the Predynastic to Early Dynastic graves were of the simple inhumation type in a shallow oval pit, tightly flexed on the left-side, with the head facing North and face looking East. However, three large graves were discovered, grave 923, which is a large oval grave, grave 945 which is a rectangular mud filled grave, and grave 955, which again is a large rectangular mud filled grave. These three large graves contained many grave goods, including wine jars, some with pot marks on them, beer jars, and stone artefacts such as Egyptian alabaster vases and slate plates. The simple oval graves usually contained only a few ceramic vessels. One adult had strange oblique wear on two anterior teeth, possibly from habitual use as a tool for pulling material such as reeds or leather.
- The recording by photographic, drawn, and written mediums of the artefacts from the graves
- The excavation and analysis of the skeletal material.
- The teaching of excavation methodology and practice to students.
- A survey of the East of the site to ascertain its date and the relationship between the cattle and child burials.
- A general survey of the concession for any traces of past human activity.
- To formulate a strategy for the next survey season in Spring 1996 and excavation season in Summer 1996.
Figure 9. Excavation of Square 94.
Figure 10. Excavation of Square 92 with Nassrallah Fat-hi Kilany and Tracy Prowse in the foreground.
The assessment of the East part of the site, which contained a 'child and cow burial', revealed that the child burial was a later intrusive burial, probably Ptolemaic, and that the Bos burials dated to the Late Period, and form a circular area that has contemporary child burials in the middle. A couple of later, intrusive adult burials, probably from the Ptolemaic era were found in the southwest of the circle. As well as Bos burials, including cows, bulls and calves, there were goat burials. Four 10 x 10 m excavation units were also placed in this are, these produced several more Late Period to Ptolemaic burials, although no animal burials were found in these units.